Najjar 1996: evidence that interactive multimedia information helps people learn.

Multimedia is most effective when

  1. it encourages dual-coding of information
  2. when the media support one another
  3. when the media are presented to learners with low prior knowledge or aptitude in the domain being learned


Uden, L., & Campion, R. (2000). Integrating modality theory in educational multimedia design. Retrieved from